“This development further reduces competition in both the Canadian print and online worlds which are already among the most heavily concentrated in the world,” noted Vincent Mosco, a Professor Emeritus at Queen’s University and author of The Political Economy of Communication. “A primary reason for the takeover is to entrench Postmedia’s monopoly power. This will slash journalism jobs and reduce the number of voices providing the variety of views essential for a thriving democracy.”
Some academics have argued that concentration of newspaper ownership isn’t a concern in the digital age, because online publications such as The Tyee and even amateur blogs provide more competition than ever for news and opinion. Not so, according to Professor Robert Hackett of
co-author of The Missing News. “This merger will mean more cutbacks and resource
rationalization, less diversity,” said Hackett. “Unfortunately, volunteer-based
citizen journalism probably won’t fill the growing shortfall in original
general interest newsgathering.” Simon
The Competition Bureauis only allowed to examine the effect of newspaper mergers and takeovers on the market for advertising, however, not for news and opinion. Its predecessor, the Combines Investigation Branch of the federal Department of Justice, held hearings into the 1957 Pacific Press merger between the Vancouver Sun and Province and found it to be an illegal combination between competitors. The arrangement was allowed to stand on the basis of “economic necessity,” however, after the parties argued that under the prevailing Natural Monopoly Theory of Newspapers eventually only one daily would be left in
(A third daily, the News-Herald, was actually published in Vancouver
until it was bought and folded by the new Pacific Press partnership.) The Vancouver
Sun was then owned by the local Cromie family, while the Province was
owned by the Toronto-based Southam chain. The Cromies sold the Sun to FP
Publications in 1963, which started a succession of Eastern corporate ownership
of Vancouver’s largest newspaper.
FP was taken over in 1980 by Thomson Newspapers, owner of the Globe and Mail,
which quickly flipped the Sun to Southam, giving it both Vancouver
dailies. That day, August 27, 1980,
became known as “Black Wednesday” because it also saw the closing of Thomson’s Ottawa
Journal and Southam’s
Tribune. A Royal Commission on Newspapers was called to investigate the
disappearance of newspaper competition in Winnipeg Canada,
while criminal charges of conspiracy and monopoly were laid against the chains,
which were found not guilty after a trial.
Tabloids soon replaced the closed dailies in
and Winnipeg, however, modeled
after the Toronto Sun that arose from the ashes of the folded Toronto
Telegram in 1971. Sun tabloids proved so successful across Canada
that Southam converted its Vancouver Province to tabloid format in 1983,
which revived the flagging daily because it attracted a younger readership
prized by advertisers. Southam was taken over in 1996
by Conrad Black, who sold it in 2000
to Canwest Global Communications, which renamed Pacific Press the Pacific Newspaper Group. The
Sun Media chain was taken over in 1998 by Quebecor, which also publishes the French-language
tabloids Le Journal de Montreal and Le Journal de Quebec.
The Competition Bureau held hearings into the acquisition by Southam in the late 1980s of most of the Lower Mainland’s community newspapers, including the North Shore News, Vancouver Courier and Now newspapers. It ordered the sale of some that competed with the Pacific Press dailies for advertising, but Southam successfully appealed the ruling to the Supreme Court of Canada. With the 2000 sale of Southam to Canwest, which owned BCTV,
came to have possibly the highest level of media ownership concentration in the
free world. This eased considerably with Canwest’s 2009 bankruptcy, after which
its newspapers and Global Television network were sold off separately. Its
newspapers were bought by a consortium of their creditors headed by U.S.-basedhedge funds. That put
Postmedia over the foreign ownership limit for newspapers set by the
federal government, which the company got around by creating two classes of shares that ensured voting control would remain with
Canadian shareholders. Postmedia sold its Lower Mainland community newspapers and
the daily Victoria Times Colonist to Vancouver-based Glacier Media in 2011,
further easing newspaper ownership concentration on the West Coast.
Postmedia’s purchase of Sun Media would raise the national level of newspaper ownership concentration considerably, however. The Canadian newspaper industry has been dominated recently by Quebecor, Postmedia and Torstar, publisher of the Toronto Star, the Metro chain of commuters tabloids in seven Canadian cities, plus three dailies and more than 100 community newspapers in
Each controlled about 20 percent of Canadian dailies, but adding the Sun Media chain would give Postmedia well over a third of
the industry and create local monopolies in Calgary,
Edmonton, and Ottawa.
Postmedia claims the purchase would provide “cost synergies” of up to $10
million a year, which means that it plans to combine operations where it
publishes more than one daily and to cut jobs and production costs by sharing
office space and printing presses. For that, however, it would need Competition
Bureau approval but could rely on the Pacific Press partnership as a precedent.
It might argue that one of the newspapers in each market would fail unless it
is allowed to go into business with the other and carve up the local market for
print advertising. That would undoubtedly see advertising rates go up, however,
to the detriment of advertisers and consumers. The Competition Bureau should
look askance at that argument, as the success of tabloids has proved that a second
newspaper that appeals to a different demographic can be financially viable.
This has effectively repealed the Natural Monopoly Theory of Newspapers upon
which the Pacific Press monopoly was allowed to stand more than a half century
ago, to the everlasting detriment of Vancouverites. Postmedia executives did
not immediately respond to requests for comment on this story.